These three principles are the base of disease control on a mushroom farm. To my opinion there is no farm that has not a spot of disease somewhere.
But depending on what is done it will develop into a serious problem or it will stay a hidden time bomb.
If a problem is discovered it is of crucial importance that is recognised. To make sure that will happen training of people on the farm and especially pickers is needed. They are your eyes on the farm.
They need to know the most common diseases and especially in a young stage. Many places of dry bubble are not recognised and are only seen if the disease is in an almost incurable stadium. The small wart on a mushroom or grey spot is often missed.
The same goes for insects. Many growers do not know the difference between a phorid and a sciarid. Although the damage pattern is totally different, so Is the threshold where it really starts costing production. Also the cure is completely different.
Example: growers use diflubenzuron against phorids.
It is only active against sciarids.
If the disease is recognised then it should be isolated. It can be covered on the spot but the most important is to simply keep all doors closed. Check filters and door seals. If a room is infected, make sure the infection is contained in that one room and does not spread on the farm.
After the isolation the disease can be treated. If the spot is detected in an early stage one can do with just a sport treatment. If it is more the whole room should be taken on.
But too often the infection spreads and the whole farm must be treated. Generally room treatment for a full cycle with an overlap of two or three rooms to break the lifecycle of the disease.
So, just a test:
Look at the photo and spot the phorid. Or is it a sciarid?
As the sun's warm embrace blankets the earth, a quiet wonder emerges beneath the forest canopies, in fields, and even in our own backyards. Mushrooms, those enigmatic and diverse organisms, have their own story to tell during the summertime. From vibrant hues to hidden ecosystems, let's embark on a global adventure to explore how mushrooms flourish during this magical season.
1. Bountiful Forests of North America
In North America, the summertime brings forth a bountiful display of wild mushrooms. From the iconic morels to the majestic chanterelles, forests come alive with a myriad of shapes, colors, and flavors. Enthusiastic foragers take to the woods to harvest these gastronomic treasures, while fungi experts study their ecological roles. The diverse landscapes of the continent offer a playground for mushrooms, showcasing the symbiotic dance between these fungi and the trees they call home.
2. European Forests
Across the Atlantic, European forests present their own captivating tales of summertime mushrooms. The enchanting forests of France, for instance, are famous for their delectable truffles. Skilled truffle hunters and their faithful dogs work tirelessly, seeking the precious fungi hidden beneath the earth. Meanwhile, the United Kingdom's woodlands come alive with fairy tale-esque mushrooms, like the iconic fly agaric, adding a touch of whimsy to the landscape.
3. The Fungi Fiesta in South America
In the lush rainforests of South America, a fungi fiesta unfolds during the summer months. These tropical forests, teeming with life, harbor an incredible diversity of fungi, many of which remain undiscovered by science. These mushrooms play vital roles in the ecosystem, breaking down organic matter and supporting the balance of the rainforest.
4. The Magic of Asian Fungi
Across Asia, a rich tradition of mushroom cultivation and consumption has been practiced for centuries. From the revered shiitake to the intriguing lion's mane, Asia's mushroom culture is deeply intertwined with its culinary heritage and traditional medicine. The summertime in Asia brings forth an abundance of mushrooms, enriching the regional cuisine and adding a burst of umami flavor to dishes.
5. Hidden Gems in Australia
Even in the arid landscapes of Australia, mushrooms find a way to thrive during the summer months. Fungi like the desert truffle emerge from the sandy soil, revealing the adaptability and resilience of these organisms. In this challenging environment, mushrooms play a unique role, contributing to the delicate balance of the ecosystem.
From the mystical forests of North America to the rainforests of South America, the summertime mushroom stories from around the world reveal the incredible adaptability, diversity, and significance of these organisms. As we enjoy the warm months, let's take a moment to appreciate the hidden wonders beneath our feet - the mushrooms that quietly remind us of the magic of nature and its ceaseless cycles of life and renewal. Whether foraging for a culinary delight or simply reveling in the beauty of these fungi, the summertime offers a perfect opportunity to connect with the fascinating world of mushrooms.
Lately, several farms have seen some symptoms of virus which means more focus on hygiene is necessary. Hygiene includes all measures aimed at minimizing the risk of disease and pests developing and spreading. The greatest risk of contamination from diseases and pests is at the time of filling and when the harvest starts because from that moment on several people enter the growing rooms, but there are also risks in other parts of the cultivation cycle like during emptying the grow rooms and that got forgotten on many occasions. Much of it is produced by humans and is preventable.
To reduce the chance that a few traces of diseases or insects still survive in the growing rooms after the last harvest day, it is vital to cook out the growing rooms. To ensure that all diseases and pests are killed, it is necessary to heat the entire cultivation room to 70 ° C for 12 hours by means of steam. By entire growing space is meant that the compost also reaches this temperature for 12 hours. Often, out of cost or time savings, it is chosen to shorten the time, or the temperature is kept lower, which has the risk that spores can survive. However, to be sure you kill all spores, 70 °C is the benchmark for 12 hours, especially if there are diseases or pests on your farm.
After cooking out, the new growing cycle starts, so it is important that from this moment on no traces of mushrooms, spores or flies end up in the growing area. This is often neglected during emptying, which means that the usefulness of (costly!!!) cookout has been for nothing. Therefore, when emptying, observe the following rules:
- Make sure that the people who empty the room wear clean clothes and footwear.
- Do not allow unauthorized persons when emptying.
- Always enter the cultivation area to be emptied from the outside, so not from the work corridor.
- If possible, do not pause during emptying, but only when the entire cell is empty, and the large back door is closed.
- Let the people who work at emptying not have breaks in the same area as the harvesters.
- Use only clean and sanitized material.
As soon as the growing room is empty, close the large back door as soon as possible. After this, it is important to start cleaning the growing area, shelving, and all used materials with water as quickly as possible, preferably with high pressure. Replace the spore filters, hang new fly plates to catch the first insects, and the cell is ready to be filled. If necessary, you can still disinfect the cultivation area.
Erik de Groot
Global Agriculture Services
Welcome, fellow mushroom enthusiasts! Today, we embark on a fascinating journey into the world of the White Cap mushroom (Agaricus bisporus).
Join me as we delve into its distinctive characteristics, natural habitat, nutritional composition, and explore the diverse ways this mushroom can be incorporated into culinary creations. Get ready to uncover the secrets and marvel at the intriguing nature of this remarkable fungus.
A World of Mushrooms: Where Your Favorite Fungi are Produced
Mushrooms are one of the most versatile and nutritious foods on the planet, with a wide range of flavors and textures that can be used in a variety of dishes. From the delicate and savory shiitake to the rich and meaty portobello, there is a mushroom for every taste and occasion.
But have you ever wondered where your favorite mushrooms come from? Here's a breakdown of some of the most popular mushrooms and where they are primarily produced around the world.
Button mushrooms are the most commonly produced mushrooms worldwide, and are grown in many countries including the United States, China, India, the Netherlands, Poland, and Canada. These versatile mushrooms have a mild, earthy flavor and can be used in a variety of dishes, from soups and stews to pizza toppings and salads.
Shiitake mushrooms are a popular ingredient in Asian cuisine, and are primarily produced in countries such as China, Japan, and South Korea. They are also grown in other countries, including the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom. Shiitake mushrooms have a rich, savory flavor and a meaty texture that makes them a great addition to stir-fries, soups, and noodle dishes.
Portobello mushrooms are a larger and more mature form of the button mushroom, and are primarily produced in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, and Australia. These mushrooms have a rich, meaty flavor and a firm texture that makes them a popular meat substitute in vegetarian and vegan dishes.
Oyster mushrooms are a delicate and flavorful mushroom that is grown in many countries, including China, Japan, South Korea, the United States, and the Netherlands. These mushrooms have a subtle, sweet flavor and a delicate texture that makes them perfect for sautéing, stir-frying, or adding to soups and stews.
Enoki mushrooms are a small, thin, and delicate mushroom that is primarily produced in Japan, South Korea, and China. They are also grown in other countries, including the United States and Canada. Enoki mushrooms have a crunchy texture and a mild, slightly sweet flavor that makes them a great addition to salads, stir-fries, and soups.
Morel mushrooms are a highly sought-after and flavorful mushroom that is primarily produced in the United States, Canada, and Europe. These mushrooms have a nutty, earthy flavor and a sponge-like texture that makes them perfect for sautéing or adding to sauces and gravies.
Truffle mushrooms are a rare and expensive delicacy that are primarily produced in Italy, France, and Spain, but are also grown in other countries such as the United States, Australia, and China. These mushrooms have a rich, earthy flavor and a pungent aroma that makes them a popular ingredient in gourmet dishes such as pasta, risotto, and scrambled eggs.
In conclusion, the world of mushrooms is vast and varied, with a wide range of flavors and textures that can be used in a variety of dishes. Whether you prefer the delicate flavor of oyster mushrooms or the rich, meaty taste of portobello mushrooms, there is a mushroom out there for every palate. So the next time you enjoy a delicious mushroom dish, take a moment to appreciate the diverse and fascinating world of fungi that made it possible.
I know what I will be cooking tonight!
The targets for a mushroom farm are amongst others:
• Meet market requirements
• Good quality at the lowest possible harvesting costs
To meet the market requirements the farm needs about the same amount of mushrooms every day, seven days per week. Maybe a bit more on one day than the other depending on sales. This means generally picking seven days per week.